May 01, 1802 – Congress Authorizes John James Dufour to Select Land in Indiana Territory
John James Dufour immigrated to the United States to develop European style wines from American grown grapes. Thus far, American attempts to make a good wine had been a failure. Due to the efforts of John James Dufour, the commercial wine industry in the United States began in Switzerland County, Indiana.
John James Dufour (1763 – 1827)
A native of Canton de Vaud, Switzerland, Dufour studied viticulture for twenty years in Switzerland before coming to the United States in 1796. He had come representing the Vineyard Society of Switzerland. The members of the organization were considering immigrating to America to make wine, escaping war torn Europe. He landed in Philadelphia in 1796 and embarked on a tour of vineyards across America that included stops at Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello, St. Louis, Missouri, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Kentucky. He eventually ended up at a site on the Big Bend of the Kentucky River about forty-five miles southeast of Lexington. He established an experimental vineyard at this site, planting thirty-five varieties of European grapes.
The vineyard proved so promising that in 1800, Dufour wrote to his family, still in Switzerland. Seventeen family members responded, coming to Lexington on July 3, 1801. The family operated this vineyard for a number of years.
Failure in Kentucky
The vineyard near Lexington eventually failed. Disease eventually killed the vines and the Dufours abandoned the site after selecting several varieties that had survived. These vines they believed to be still European vines, but in truth they were hybrids. The European varieties had cross bred with the European ones, creating vines that could withstand New World diseases and the harsh climate.
American grapes would produce wine, but it was wine of an inferior quality. The grapes were tart and the wine they made was almost unpalatable to those that appreciate good wine. Early efforts to grow European grapes had ended in failure. The European grapes succumbed to New World pests and diseases to which they had no immunity. The harsh climate also proved fatal to the tender European vines. Wine drinkers had to drink imported wines which the European vintners had fortified with distilled spirits so they would survive the long voyage across the ocean.
Swiss Colony in the Indiana Territory
Congress was receptive to the idea of establishing a wine industry in the United States and had encouraged Swiss vintners to come to America. Dufour thus found fertile ground for his proposal to Congress to grant him the right on May 1, 1802, to select and purchase four sections of land along the Ohio River in the Indiana Territory to grow grapes. Congress passed the law that allowed Dufour to purchase this land with twelve years to pay it back. This was much more generous than the provisions of the Harrison Land Act of 1800 which allowed only four years to pay land in the Northwest Territory off.
Harrison Grants Trading Licenses During November 1801 Governor William Henry Harrison granted trading licenses to several men in the future state of Indiana. Beginnings of the Fur Trade in North America Early French explorers in North America searched for gold and found little. They did find another valuable commodity that proved much more lucrative, furs. French and English fishermen voyaged to the coastal regions of what is now northeastern Canada spent time ashore drying their catch before returning to their home villages. During these times the native populations and these fishermen made contact. During these encounters, the fishermen would sometimes trade the natives European goods for furs. In time, the fishermen discovered that the furs were much more valuable than the fish and began making voyages dedicated exclusively to trading for fur. Soon, exploring parties made up of exploders like Jacques Cartier, John Cabot, Giovanni da Verrazzano and Henry Hudson began probing the North American coast seeking both a passage through to the Pacific and Asia as well as furs to trade. By 1608 permanent fur trading settlements began to appear. Samuel de Champlain established Quebec in 1608, the Dutch established New Amsterdam at the mouth of the Hudson River and later Fort Orange, which is current day Albany, further inland a few years later. During this same time the English established settlements further to the south. Fur Trade in Indiana The fur trade formed an important financial resource for the European governments that controlled the Ohio River Valley and to the Amerindian tribes that grew to depend upon the goods the traders supplied. The great abundance of fur bearing animals in the region supplied the natives with needed supplies like blankets, metal cookware and tools and the Europeans with furs to use as clothing, mainly hats. In Indiana there were four main periods of fur trading, the French period, the English period, the American period before 1812 and the fur trade after 1814. Since the fur trade had played such an important role in the years before the establishment of the Indiana Territory and would continue to be vital for many year, it is time to explore the inner workings of the fur industry. To understand the reasons for the establishment of the early important French fur trading posts that existed in early Indiana, it is important to start at the beginning, the beaver hat and other apparel made from fur. Fur Apparel Furriers created various forms of clothing from the furs they received from North America. These included coats, robes, trousers and other apparel. The most important item made from fur were hats, which had become an almost mandatory fashion item for both sexes beginning in the late 17th Century. European royalty, commoners and military personnel all wore fur hats of various sizes and styles. Various animals, trapped, traded, transported and processed, supplied the materials for fur apparel. Beaver hats were in vogue from about 1650 – 1850. The hat was an essential component of clothing and most European of both sexes wore them. Most people spent most of their time outdoors and the hat helped protect them against sun, rain and snow. Since the beaver hat was waterproof, it was the hat most in demand. The Animals Most of the animals that inhabited North America became popular as sources of fur. These included, hare, rabbit, lamb, wolf, coyote, raccoon, and possum. This group formed the lower quality fur used mainly for hats and apparel for common people. Royalty demanded higher quality furs, which were provided by mink, sable, weasel, squirrel, bear, beaver, lynx, otter, polecat, marten, and fox. These animals all provided a rich source of furs, however the most important animal was the beaver. The Beaver The Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber)was the most desirable animal used to satisfy the need for fur apparel. The Europeans nearly exterminated the animals before another source appeared, the North American beaver, Castor canadensis, which inhabits much of North America. Animals that inhabited the frigid regions of North America produced thicker, richer fur and were the most valuable in the fur trade. The Fur An animal’s fur serves several purposes which include temperature regulation, camouflage, moisture protection and as a sensory organ. Guard hairs form the outermost layer. These hairs contain an oily substance which helps the animal shed water as well as pigmentation which helps the animal blend into its environment. The inner fur, called wool, is denser and provides insulating qualities to the animal’s body. Insulating quality of the fur has little to do with the length of the hair, rather it is the denseness of the fur that helps keep an animal warm in Arctic regions, or cool, in desert areas. The Hat Maker The hat maker trade required a great deal of skill to perform. In Europe the earliest men practicing the trade of making felt from beaver fur were in Russia, as the cold winters there allowed the Eurasian beaver to develop the best fur. Russian felt makers guarded their secret processes of felt making well, forcing hat makers in France and Britain to import felt from Russian felt makers. After the Eurasian beaver practically disappeared from over hunting, the America beaver became available. French and English hat makers learned the craft and began producing high quality felt and hats. French hatmakers had begun practicing their trade in New France by the middle of the 1600’s. British hatmakers tended to cluster in London. Like other trades at the time the prospective hat maker apprenticed himself to a practicing hatter and spent several years learning the trade, after which the local hatmaker guild registered him and he could open a shop. The use of mercury nitrate to process the furs led to the hatter attaining a reputation of becoming mad. The phrase “mad as a hatter,” stemmed from the tendency of the mercury in the solution to attack the nervous system of the user, leading to personality changes, depression and sometimes delirium. As the 19th Century progressed felt hats began to fall out of fashion and the hatter profession waned. Reader NoteThis large section will cover some of the early fur traders that operated in Indiana, the trade routes and many other aspects of the state’s early fur trade. Visit Mossy Feet Books on Facebook
Sample Chapter Indiana’s Timeless Tales – The Indiana Territory – Book 1 Moravians Approve Mission to the Delaware August 15, 1800 – Moravians Approve Mission to the Delaware In August 1800 the Moravians approved the mission to the Lenape that lived in the White River Region. History of the Mission The call to the Moravians to establish a mission among the Delaware had originated from an old Delaware Indian named Isaac. Isaac had been among the survivors of the Gnadenhutten Massacre, which had taken place in 1782. Gnadenhutten Massacre The Moravians had established three settlements in what is now southeaster Ohio along and in the region of the Muskingum River in 1772. These settlements were Gnadenhutten, Schoenbrunn and Salem. Many natives in this region listened to the Moravian missionaries, which had included Heckewelder and David Zeisburger, and converted to Christianity. During the Revolutionary War these peaceful natives, many of whom belonged to the Delaware tribe, stayed neutral in the war. The British had managed to recruit most of the other tribes to their cause. The British and the unconverted tribes distrusted the Moravian converts. The British removed the native residents of Gnadenhutten in 1781 and imprisoned them near Detroit. After removing them the British destroyed all the cabins and other improvements to the land that the natives had accomplished. The British allowed about a hundred to return in the fall to harvest their crops. These Delaware resettled the town, however in March a band of Pennsylvania militia that had entered the area looking for Indians that had been conducting raids in that state found the Delaware. They mistook them for the Indians that had been raiding and murdered ninety-six Delaware in an incident that has become known as the Gnadenhutten Massacre on March 8, 1782. Fled to Woapicamikunk Some of the survivors of Gnadenhutten fled to Woapicamikunk to live among other Delaware that had settled on the region. Some of these had reverted to the native beliefs of the Delaware, however some remained converted to Christianity. Isaac, now an old man, was one of these. Isaac had heard that David Zeisberger, who had founded the three missions in Ohio, had established another mission among the Indians at Goshen, Ohio in 1798. Isaac was too old to make the 16 day journey to Goshen, however he prevailed upon other tribal members to travel to Goshen and talk to the missionaries. Delaware Chief Tedpachxit decided to send a communication to the Moravians. Tedpachxit Historical lore indicates that Tedpachxit was a small man, however he was a proficient warrior. An incident that took place after St. Clair’s massacre had Tedpachxit at an event in which several American officers were present. When one of the generals heard mention of Tedpachxit, he asked “who the devil is Tedpachxit,” who thereupon strode over to the general and shook a string that had 27 dried human tongues strung on it and shook it in his face. Thus, he introduced himself to the general, saying, “He know me now.” Tedpachxit had later been Christianized and had been a part of Zeisberger’ s mission in Ohio. Tedpachxit had led a band of Delaware into the region around the White River near what is now east central Indiana and established 6 towns. The largest town they called Woapicamikunk, or “Place of the Chestnut Trees.” Tedpachxit, at Isaac’s urging, sent a message to Zeisberger, at Goshen sometime in 1797. Delegation The Moravians sent a deputation to the village on the White River with the mission of finding out if the Lenape really wanted a Moravian mission. After their arrival they spoke with Tedpachxit and asked him if the Lenape were willing to host the missionaries. The Lenape chief Pachgantschihilas, also known as Buckongahelas, happened to be present. He inquired the source of the message. The members of the delegation told him that it was a member of their tribe that had formerly lived among the Moravians. Pachgantschihilas advised them to disregard the message, that if the Lenape had sent them a message, the messenger would be accompanied by a string of wampum. The delegation returned to the Moravians with this message. The Moravians at Goshen allowed the matter to rest. Buckongahelas (c. 1720 – May 1805) Native to present day Delaware, Buckongahelas was also known as Pachgantschihilas and Petchnanalas. The name means “fulfiller” or “one who succeeds in all he undertakes.” “fulfiller” or “one who succeeds in all he undertakes.” Bu-kon-ge-he-las means “Giver of Presents.” Pressure from white settlers forced the tribe to move west, some think to Buckhannon in Upshur County, West Virginia. Historical lore suggests that present day Buckhannon, West Virginia and the Buckhannon River’s names derive from that of the Delaware Chief. During their sojourn in the area Captain William White shot and killed Buckongahelas’ son, Mahonegon. A Boy Scout camp in the Buckhannon area bears the name of Mahonegon. At the beginning of the Revolutionary War Buckongahelas was associated with the Lenape chief White Eyes, who became allied with the Americans. Buckongahelas broke away and joined with Blue Jacket in the Ohio Country. During this time he visited with the Moravian Delaware, who had converted to Christianity, at Gnadenhütten, Ohio. During his visit he gave what John Heckeweller termed, a speech that was given “with ease and an eloquence not to be imitated.” In the speech he warned the natives that the Americans would kill them if they got in their path and it would not matter if they were Christians. Eleven months after the speech, militia men from Pennsylvania did kill them in an incident known as the Gnadenhütten massacre in 1782. Buckongahelas was associated with Miami Chief Little Turtle and quite active during the Northwest Indian War and a member of the Northwest Indian Confederacy. He had participated in many raids against the settlers. He fought at St. Clair’s Defeat and at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. Buckongahelas signed the Treaty of Greenville for the Lenape. He later moved his tribe into the area now known as Muncie, Indiana along the White River. He signed the 1803 Treaty of Fort Wayne and the 1804 Treaty of Vincennes. Buckongahelas died the following year, near Muncie, Indiana. A 650 pound bronze statue honors him at Buckhannon’s Jawbone Run Park in Buckhannon, West Virginia. Chief Hockingpomsga Visits Goshen Lenape Chief Hockingpomsga visited Goshen on May 5, 1799. The Moravian missionaries were absent at the time of his visit, thus Lenape Chief William Henry Gelelemend spent time with the chief. During their activities Gelelemend mentioned that the respected Lenape Chief Netawatwes had been instrumental in bringing members of the various tribes into the mission established by the Moravians at Schoenbrunn Village, which was the first Moravian mission in what would become Ohio. Indeed, it had been Netawatwes that had initially invited the Moravians to establish a mission at the site and one of his fervent wishes was that the Lenape adopt the religion. Hockingpomsga was opposed to the missions, however respect for the venerated chief led him to carry the invitation to the Lenape to come to Goshen to hear the Word. Chief Hockingpomsga The author has been unable to uncover much information about Chief Hockingpomsga other than that he lived in a village that bore his name, Hockingpomsga’s Town. local historians believe that this village was on the banks of the White River near Priest Ford Road southwest of Yorktown, Indiana. Priest Ford Road connects Indiana State Road 32 with County Line Road 165 S. Invitation Extended In April 1800 a messenger, Tulpe Najundam, brought a message from the Lenape living along the White River extending an invitation for the Lenape living in Goshen to come and live with them in a large tract of land near their village of Woapicamikunk that they had available. The original message sent to the Lenape living along the White River had in no way indicated that the Goshen Lenape would consider moving away from their lands. Tulpe Najundam indicated that the chiefs had suspected that the Goshen Lenape would not wish to move, but had set aside the land any way in hopes that they would accept and move anyway. Unwilling to Move The Goshen Lenape were quite satisfied with their situation and were unwilling to move. The Moravian missionaries at Goshen knew this and had no illusions about the reasons for the chiefs of the White River Lenape to extend the invitations. It was rumored that many of the Christianized Lenape living along the White River wished to return to the missions in Ohio. The missionaries felt that the invitation, which the chiefs knew would include the missionaries, was to prevent any more Lenape from leaving the White River and to perhaps bolster the numbers of the tribe living in one area along the White River. In spite of this, the Moravians believed it was a tremendous opportunity to spread the Gospel among the Lenape. The sent a non committal answer to the White River Lenape, informing them that they were considering the offer, but that their leaders had the final say and that would take time. Approval Shortly after Tulpe Najundam’s message to the Moravians, David Zeisberger dispatched a letter to the Moravian Helpers’ Conference, which was the mission administerial board in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, urging them to approve the mission to the White River. He indicated that some of the Lenape families living in Goshen might be willing to relocate to Woapicamikunk. He suggested that the brethren should assign a married couple or a single brother take part in the mission. Luckenbach and Kluge In time, the brethren approved the mission and chose Abraham Luckenbach and John Peter Kluge to make the journey into the White River region to undertake the mission. Neither man was married, however Kluge had indicated that, if chosen, he would marry before going.
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During the ensuing days, representatives of the Pottawattamie and Chippewa have arrived at Fort Greenville. The council convened on June 30, at the request of the chiefs. La Gris rose to speak to the General. He thanked General Wayne for the provisions they had been given during their stay as they waited the arrival of more tribal chiefs. However, they complained of the monotony of the diet and asked for mutton and pork. Additionally, since the weather was turning cooler, they requested wine. The noted that the warriors that had accompanied them were getting restless, as there was nothing for them to do as they awaited the arrival of more tribes. General Wayne replied that Blue Jacket and several others would soon arrive. He also explained that they had no pork and the little mutton they had was for those that were sick and, rarely, for the officers. He promised them that he would give each of the chiefs a sheep for them to eat and some wine. At that, the meeting adjourned.
Sample Chapter A Timeline of Indiana History – 1795 – 1800 July 18, 1795 – Treaty of Greenville – Treaty of Muskingum River (Fort Harmar) Debated The council this day opened with an address from Little Turtle, who stated that the Shawnee had had nothing to do with the Treaty of Muskingum River. He charged that the Six Nations tribes had been behind the signing of that treaty and that he had not been there. He further stated that the Six Nations representatives had seduced the younger chiefs of their tribes to sign the treaty. He professed ignorance of the treaty and wanted to know what it said before agreeing to it. At this, General Wayne professed that he would endeavor to explain to them the Treaty of Muskingum River the next day when they met. Blue Jacket and Chippewa Chief Massas Arrive Blue Jacket and Chippewa Chief Massas arrived at Fort Greenville in the evening and were received in the council house. Chief Massas indicated that he had been at the negotiations during the Treaty of Muskingum and had a copy of that treaty with him; indeed it had been his reason for coming to the council. The General welcomed Massa to the council and promised him that upon the conclusion of the council, he would provide provisions for him and his people.
Description: The 1795 Treaty of Greenville opened up most of the lands in the future state of Ohio to settlement, forcing the native tribes further west. The treaty line also opened up a small area in what would become the southeast corner of Indiana. In the years after the signing of the treaty the population of the Northwest Territory grew as the future state of Ohio neared birth.
Table of Contents January 1795 – Native Leaders Gather at Fort GreenvilleIsrael Putnam Establishes First Library in Northwest TerritoryMay 02, 1795 – Governor St. Clair Has Concern over Illicit TradeFebruary 1795 – Miami Chief Pacanne Taken to DetroitMarch 31 – 1795-French GrantJune 16, 1795 – Negotiation Council Opens June 17, 1795 – Pottawattamie Chief New Corn ArrivesJune 23, 1795 – Little Turtle, La Gris Arrived at Fort GreenvilleJune 24, 1795 – Senate Ratifies Jay TreatyJune 25, 1795 – Wayne Explains Camp ProcedureJune 30, 1795 – Native Chiefs Ask for WineJuly 03, 1795 – General Wayne Informs Native Chiefs about Independence Day CelebrationJuly 15, 1795 – General Wayne Proposes Treaty Terms July 18, 1795 – Treaty of Greenville – Treaty of Muskingum River (Fort Harmar) Debated July 19, 1795 – Treaty of Greenville – Blue Jacket and General Wayne ConferJuly 20, 1795 – Treaty of Greenville – General Wayne’s Speech to the CouncilJuly 21, 1795 – Treaty of Greenville – Discussion About Lands Ceded by Treaty of Muskingum River July 22, 1795 – Little Turtle and Tarke SpeakJuly 23, 1795 – General Discussion by the ChiefsJuly 25, 1795 – General Wayne Clarifies the Land BoundariesJuly 27, 1795 – Boundaries ExplainedJuly 28, 1795 – General Discussion Among ChiefsJuly 29, 1795 – The Chiefs AnswerJuly 30, 1795 – AgreementAugust 03, 1795 – Treaty of Greenville ConcludedAugust 07, 1795 – Greenville Treaty Copies DistributedAugust 10, 1795 – Record of Proceedings CertifiedAugust 12, 1795 – Chiefs Ask for TradersAugust 25, 1795 – Northwest Territorial Assembly Adjourns – Maxwell’s Code Becomes LawSeptember 09, 1795 – Shawnees Return PrisonersSeptember 28, 1795 – President Receives Copy of Treaty of GreenvilleOctober 02, 1795 – Secretary of State Letter to the PresidentNovember 17, 1795 – Postmaster General Concedes Mail’s TardinessNovember 25, 1795 – William Henry Harrison Marries Anna SymmesDecember 1795 – Meriwether Lewis Joins Chosen Rifle CompanyJanuary 06, 1796 – Postmaster General Letter – Impracticality of Mail Routes on Ohio RiverFebruary 29, 1796 – Jay Treaty EffectiveMarch 25, 1796 – Colonel Ebenezer Zane Submits Letter Petitioning To Build a RoadApril 1796 – Chillicothe Ohio EstablishedApril 1796 – British Begin Building Fort AmherstburgMay 18, 1796 – Land Act of 1796June 01, 1796 – Amendment Land Act of 1796June 01, 1797 – Israel Ludlow Arrived at Loromie’s Creek to Begin SurveyJune 15, 1797 – Israel Ludlow Begins Surveying the Greenville Treaty LineJuly 01, 1796 – William Clark Resigns from ArmyJuly 11, 1796 – British Evacuate Fort DetroitJuly 13, 1796 – American Force Occupies Fort DetroitJuly 17, 1796 – Colonel John Hamtramck Officially Takes Command at DetroitAugust 1796 – William Henry Harrison Becomes Commander of Fort WashingtonAugust 13, 1796 – General Wayne Arrives DetroitDecember 15, 1796 – Death of General WayneNovember 05, 1796 – Rufus Putnam Appointed Surveyor GeneralJanuary 25, 1797 – Putnam Requests Permission to Begin SurveyMarch 14, 1797 – The Secretary of the Treasury Replies to PutnamLate March 1797 Putnam Establishes his Office in MariettaMay 07, 1797 – Congress Approves Funding for Zane’s TraceJuly 10, 1797 – Israel Ludlow Arrives at Loramie’s StoreJuly 10, 1797 – Adams County CreatedJuly 29, 1797 – Jefferson County CreatedFebruary 04, 1798 – Calvin Fletcher BornJune 01, 1798 – William Henry Harrison Resigns From ArmyJune 26, 1798 – Harrison Receives Appointment as Secretary of the Northwest TerritoryOctober 02, 1798 – Théodore Guérin BornOctober 1798 – Israel Ludlow Surveys True Meridian That Became Indiana/Ohio State LineOctober 28, 1798 – Levi Coffin BornOctober 29, 1798 – St. Claire Orders First Elections Held for AssemblyNovember 22, 1798 – Silver Creek Church Established – ClarksvilleDecember 17, 1798 – First Election Northwest Territory1799 – Ephraim Kibbey Begins Cutting Kibbey’s TraceJanuary 22, 1799 – First Northwest Territory Legislature MeetsJune 26, 1799 – William Henry Harrison Appointed Secretary of Northwest TerritoryFebruary 4, 1799 – First Northwest Territory Chooses Council MembersMarch 02, 1799 – President John Adams Picks 5 Council MemberMarch 03, 1799 – United States Senate Confirms the List of Northwest Territory Council April 24, 1799 – David Wallace Born – Sixth Indiana GovernorJune 12, 1799 – James Washington Cockrum Born – Became Instrumental Figure Underground RailroadSeptember 16, 1799 – First Legislative Assembly of Northwest TerritorySeptember 24, 1799 – Assembly Meets and OrganizesOctober 03, 1799 – Northwest Territory Legislature Elects Harrison as First Delegate to CongressNovember 28, 1799 – John Rice Jones Appointed to Carry Mail 1799-October -December 12 – First Legislative SessionDecember 14, 1799 – Men Required to Work Two Days Each Year on RoadsDecember 19, 1799 – Northwest Assembly AdjournsDecember 24, 1799 – Harrison Proposes Changes to Land LawsFebruary 28, 1800 – Second Census AuthorizedMarch 22, 1800 – Buffalo (Vincennes) Trace Designated a Post RoadMarcy 03, 1800 – Congressional Report Recommends Splitting Northwest TerritoryMay 07, 1800 – Bill to Divide Northwest Territory – Creates Indiana TerritoryAcknowledgementsAbout the AuthorMossy Feet Books CatalogueSample ChapterShort History of Roads and Highways – Indiana EditionIndian Trails, Pioneer Traces and Indiana HighwaysIndiana History Series
Sample Chapter Indiana’s Timeless Tales – 1792 – 1794 January 01, 1792 – Early Indiana In early 1792, the region that would become Indiana consisted of land claimed by the various Indian tribes that lived in the dense forests, swamps and prairies, traveling and using the fishes of the rivers and streams as a valuable food source. Settlements In 1792, only three settlements existed in the future state, Vincennes, Clarksville and Jeffersonville. Cincinnati, located in the southwest corner of the future state of Ohio served as capital of the Northwest Territory. All of these settlements lay along major rivers. Northwest Territory Major John Hamtramck commanded Fort Knox I at Vincennes, constructed in 1787, was the westernmost fort of the United States. Arthur St. Clair governor of the Northwest Territory, which included the lands comprising the future states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and a portion of Minnesota. Settlement The great cost of waging the Revolutionary War had left the government of the United States with an almost overwhelming debt that the new nation could not pay. The lands of the Northwest Territory beckoned, providing a means of paying the soldiers that fought the war. The United States granted land to Revolutionary War veterans, who began moving into the areas north of the Ohio River granted to them. The land also provided a much needed cash flow medium, as the government could have tracts of land surveyed and sold off to the public. The government established land offices for people to buy this land. These people also moved into their new holdings, many of which were north of the Ohio River. Amerindian tribes that lived in the region saw these new settlers as a threat to their way of life. They also viewed them as a violation Treaty of Fort Stanwix, signed in 1768, that set the border between the whites and the Amerindians at the Ohio River. The United States, with great reluctance, created an army to deal with the threat. However, the government did not give this early army the resources it needed to succeed. This policy led to the disasters of General Harmar in 1790 and St. Clair’s Defeat (Battle of the Wabash) in 1791. After the disastrous Battle of the Wabash, the United States set out on a different course to enlarge its settled territory.
The Northwest Indian War Description:Explore Indiana’s early history using this journal of history stories from the beginning days of the Northwest Territory. A Timeline of Indiana History – 1792 – 1794 relates the time line of events that occurred between St. Clair’s Defeat to, and including the Battles of Fort Recovery and Fallen Timbers. Many of these stories of the Northwest Indian War are little known and obscure historical tales that the reader will enjoy learning. Preview Chapter Buy Direct from Author Softbound Price – $10.99
December 06, 1785 – John Van Cleve Family Arrives Washington, Pennsylvania Blacksmith John Van Cleve, his wife Catherine and eight children arrive at Washington, Pennsylvania. John Van Cleve (May 16, 1749 – June 1, 1791) The son of Benjamin and Rachel Covenhoven Van Cleve, John was native to New Brunswick, Middlesex County, New Jersey Colony. At fifteen, John apprenticed to a blacksmith in Freehold, New Jersey. By 1771, John had finished his apprenticeship and established a blacksmith shop. That year he met, and married, Catherine Benham. The couple would have nine children, three of whom would die in infancy. American Revolution After the Battles of Lexington and Concord occurred, the New Jersey militia mobilized. John enlisted in the militia and served in his father’s company. In that capacity, he acted as a guide for Captain Daniel Morgan’s company of Riflemen. He continued to serve in the New Jersey militia after Morgan’s capture at the Battle of Quebec on December 31, 1775. He served under General David Forman of the Continental Army during the American loss at the Battle of Germantown on October 4, 1777. After the battle, the British occupied Philadelphia. Van Cleve joined scouting parties that harassed British troops that had left the city to search for supplies. Battle of Monmouth By May of 1778, the British departed Philadelphia and began their march towards New York. General Washington pursued them, catching them at Monmouth, New Jersey, resulting in the Battle of Monmouth on June 28, 1778. Van Cleve’s family fled in confusion to the Pine Swamps as the battle developed around them. John left them to help Morgan’s company reorganize itself in the confusion of battle. Musket fire terrified the hiding family as the battle raged. The Americans prevailed, driving the British from the field, leaving devastation in their wake. The British had cut down the orchards, killed livestock and left the countryside in a state of charred destruction. John found his anvil in the ruins of his blacksmith shop and all that remained alive was a heifer and a sow that had its back broken by a British saber. This was the last battle of the Revolution that John served in during the Revolution. Move to Washington, Pennsylvania John’s brother in law, Robert Benham, had settled in Washington, Pennsylvania, which is southwest of Pittsburg. He had traveled in early 1785 to Van Cleve’s home in Freehold to visit John and convince him to near his home near the Monongahela River. John finally agreed to migrate, so the family, which had lived in the New Jersey area for over 100 years, decided to pull up stakes and move to the frontier area of southwestern Pennsylvania. The Beginning The family spent most of the summer preparing for the move. Finally, on November 2, 1785 the caravan of four wagons, eight horses and the entire Van Cleve family boarded their wagons and began the long journey to Washington, Pennsylvania. His thirteen-year-old son, Benjamin drove the lead wagon, with his mother beside him. Robert Benham drove another wagon and John’s apprentice Tunis Voorheis drove another. Two of the daughters, ages seven and ten, walked alongside the wagon while four-year-old William and one-year-old George rode in the wagon with their mother. John rode a horse and rode ahead to scout the path. The author does not know who drove the fourth wagon. Three wagons held the family’s possessions, the fourth John’s blacksmith supplies. The Journey The family covered thirty miles the first day, the most they would cover for the entire thirty-four day journey of almost 400 miles. The camped about sixteen miles from Philadelphia in country that had been almost denuded of forests after almost 100 years of settlement. The next day they managed to find the Pennsylvania Road, which was little more than a rutted path leading west into the densely forested hilly area of southern Pennsylvania. Travel was slow. The road had no bridges, so the family had to ford each river and stream. The road ascended the steep hills using hairpin curves to gain the summit. The hills were so steep, they had to unhitch two horses from one wagon and add it to the next so the horses could gain the summit. After reaching the summit, they tied ropes to the wagons and lowered them down using raw muscle until they got to into the valley. They would then start the process over again for the next wagon until all were down. Then they would ascend the next hill. As winter approached, the family endured snow and ice. Wagons broke down periodically, and they would lose a day repairing the wagon. At length, they reached their destination on December 6, 1785. They lived in the Washington Pennsylvania area until 1790, when they would once again migrate to Losantiville in the Northwest Territory.