Note Card – Covered Bridge Series 2 – Park County Covered Bridges

Note Card – Covered Bridge Series 2 – Park County Covered Bridges

This assortment includes six pretty covered bridges in Parke County, Indiana.
Cox Ford Covered Bridge
Narrows Covered Bridge
West Union Covered Bridge
Bowshear Covered Bridge
Bridgeton Mill Covered Bridge
Neet Covered Bridge

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Sample Chapter – Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites – Southwest Edition – Site of Hindostan

Sample Chapter

Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites – Southwest Edition

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Site of Hindostan

Title of Marker:
Site of Hindostan (.6 mile south)
Location:
SE corner of SR 550 & CR 55, near Hindostan Falls, Loogootee. (Martin County, Indiana)
Installed by:
Erected by Indiana Sesquicentennial Commission, 1966
Marker ID #: 
51.1966.1
Marker Text: 
First settled in 1818, Hindostan became county seat of Martin County, boasting a population of approximately 1, 200. A “Great Sickness” struck in 1828 bringing death to the inhabitants. The town was never occupied again.

Brief History
A report by the Indiana Historical Bureau corrects and updates the information on this marker, much of which is incorrect or unverified.
The date of settlement is apparently incorrect. A journal entry from a traveler in 1817 who says, “This beautiful country continues as far as Sholt’s Tavern on White River, thirty-six miles east of Vincennes.” The man that owned the tavern was also the principal founder of Hindostan, thus the area was settled before 1818.
Hindostan did become the county seat in 1820, upon the establishment of Martin County; however, the population of the town given as 1200 is suspect. Census data from the time indicate that 351 people lived there.
The third assertion of a “Great Sickness” in 1828 is also unsubstantiated. There are records that several times disease did strike the community, notably in 1819 or 1820. There is a record in a newspaper that mentions the request to the state legislature that the Martin County Seat be moved because of an epidemic that struck the town, leaving it depopulated. The Bureau could find no source document to verify the statement.
The last assertion that the town “was never occupied again” is also in error. From newspaper accounts over the years after the move of the county seat, the town was still occupied, thought the population declined. The town is now abandoned. For more information on the Bureau’s Report, see this link.
Hindustan
A promising town called Hindustan Falls once occupied the site now occupied by Hindustan Falls Public Fishing Area. In 1816, the same year Indiana became a State, Hindustan Falls became a town. It flourished since it was on the original stagecoach route between New Albany and Vincennes and on one of the only roads in the area. By 1820, the town’s population grew to 1200 at a time when the population of Louisville, KY was only 1300 people. Since most were, adventurers from New England and Kentucky and few were farmers many lived in flatboats on the river. Captain Caleb Fellows, a soldier who had served in the East India Company, named the town.
Disaster
The town grew, its exports floated by keelboat as far as New Orleans. The people of the new town exported corn, bacon and “Hindustan oil stone,” which was a whetstone used for sharpening knives and gravestones mined in quarries nearby. Abundant meat in the form of bears, deer, and squirrels inhabited the forest lands around the settlement. There was a hotel, gristmill and sawmill in the growing town. There was a constant flow of people in and out of the town. In 1820, disaster struck the town in the form of either cholera or yellow fever, or possibly both. The disease, whatever it was, was particularly virulent, often killing whole families. Many dead families were burned in their cabins in an effort to contain the pestilence. A mass grave, whose location is unknown, held the remains of many of the deceased. By 1824, half the population had gone and by 1840, the once promising village was completely depopulated.
Hindustan Falls Public Fishing Area
Hindustan Falls Public Fishing Area is located on the East Fork of the White River southwest of Shoals and southeast of Loogootee on County Road 55, just of Indiana State Road 550. To get there drive southeast of Loogootee on Indiana State Road 550 to a right turn on County Road 55. Camping is available at nearby Martin State Forest and Glendale State Fish and Wildlife Area. The fishing is good at Hindustan Falls for freshwater drum and in the river for trotline fishing.
Canoe Floats
There are two canoe floats associated with Hindustan Falls Public Fishing Area. The first one begins north of Shoals, the put in point on private property from which permission must be gained from the owner of the land before proceeding. To get there from US Routes 50/150, go north on Main Street in Shoals to a right turn on East River Road. After about a mile and a half East River Road meets the river and follows its course for a while. This is the place to put in. There is limited parking on the road and this is private property. Please respect the owners and ask permission before trespassing. The canoe ride from that point to Hindustan Falls is about sixteen miles long. It will take approximately six hours. There is one riffle area that will probably require a portage.
The take out point is the public fishing area ramp. Cars will drive south on Indiana State Road 550 to Hindustan Road. If canoeing past this point portage around the falls as they can be dangerous.
Canoe Ride on the East Fork White River
The canoe ride from Hindustan Falls to Portersville is a pleasant twenty-mile float that will take about nine hours. The put in point is at the second ramp below the falls at Hindustan Falls and the take out point is at the Portersville State Launch Ramp northeast of Portersville. The car shuttle needs to return to Shoals on Indiana State Road 550 to US 231. Turn south on US Route 231 and drive to County Road 650 S. Turn west and drive to Alfordville. South of town stay on the blacktop jogging west on 700 S then south on 1125 E and proceed about four miles to the river near Portersville. The take-out site is on the northeast side of the bridge.
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Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites – Southwest Edition

Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites – Southwest Edition
Road Trips in Southwest Indiana
Take a fun tour through the rich history of Indiana using Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites – Southwest Edition as your guidebook. This tourism guide will help visitors find all of the historical treasures in south central Indiana.
The counties included in this historical travel book include:
Daviess
Dubois
Gibson
Green
Knox
Martin
Perry
Pike
Posey
Spencer
Vanderburgh
Warrick

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Other Books in the Series
Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites – South East Edition
Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites – South Central Edition
Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites – East Central Edition
Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites – Central Edition
Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites – West Central Edition
Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites – North East Edition
Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites – North Central Edition
Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites – North West Edition
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Sample Chapter – Short Histories of Traditional Crafts – Spinning and Weaving History

Sample Chapter 

Short Histories of Traditional Crafts

Spinning and Weaving History

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Spinning tufts of fiber into thread, or yarn, is a craft that dates back to prehistoric times. The earliest form of spinning fiber into yarn was to roll tufts of fibers down the thigh with the hands. The rolling action twisted the fiber into yarn. The spinner kept adding tufts until they had the desired length. The next step up in spinning technology was to wind the fibers in a loose wad around a long stick called a distaff. The spinner attached a few strands of fiber to a tool called a spindle, which is a short, round, weighted stick. The spinner spins the loose fibers, twisting them, while pulling more fibers from the distaff. As the resulting yarn gains length, the spinner stops to wind the yarn around the spindle, and continues the process until they have a roll of yarn, ready for weaving into cloth. This was a daily chore that women performed, spinning wool, flax fibers, cotton or animal hair into thread. Historians are unsure of when the first spinning wheels appeared, however many think the originated sometime around 1030 in the Arabian world. From there, it spread to China and then to Europe. The spinning wheel was the first step in mechanizing the spinning process. Using the spinning wheel, the spinner starts twisting the wool with the fingers to form a thread by hand. When the spinner has a sufficient length, they thread the yarn through an orifice in the end of the spool, through hooks on a part of the spinning wheel called a flyer. The yarn is then tied securely onto the spool. The spinning wheel has groves that run to another groove on the end of the spool. An arm of the wheel attaches to a foot pedal by means of a crank. When the wool is secured to the spool, the spinner holds the bundle of fiber in the hand and gives the wheel a gentle push, starting it. The spinner can then work the fibers into thread, called carding, which the flyer twists before it wraps around the spool. The spinner keeps the wheel spinning by pumping with the foot while performing this operation. The spinning wheel made the spinning process go much faster than using the distaff and spindle.

Mechanizing the Process

This was the process used to spin cotton, wool, flax and other fibers into yarn for centuries. Lewis Paul and John Wyatt devised the first type of mechanized spinning in 1738. Over time water wheels and then steam engines provided power for the spinning apparatus. Today the process has been fully mechanized, however many crafters still practice the age old art of using the spinning wheel and the spindle and distaff methods.
Weaving Weaving threads into cloth is an ancient art that dates back into prehistory. Archeological evidence indicates that it appeared independently in the Middle East, Africa, Asia and the Americas at different times. The simplest form of weaving was the band weaving method. In this process, the weaver simply tied thread to two sticks an equal distance apart. Then she would weave the cords, or thread, between the tied threads, creating narrow bands of cloth. They could wrap these narrow bands around them to form skirts, kilts or other apparel. Or they could sew the bands together to make something larger. Sometime around 6000 BC weavers started building looms. The first ones were simply a wooden frame on which they could tie the thread, or cord, and then weave other threads between them. This was a slow process and the cloth produced this way was quite expensive. Over time they developed the shed rod, which is a stick you could run between the threads fastened on the loom, separating every other thread. They next used a tool called a sword to raise half the cords at the same time. The invention of a device called a heddle road, sometime around 500 BC, allowed the weaving process to go much faster, lowering the price of the finished cloth. People living in different areas of the world used different types of cloth. In South America the natives used cotton and the fur of alpacas and llamas. In Medieval Europe it was mostly wool, linen, nettle cloth and cotton. Asia developed the silk industry, but also wove using various types of plant fiber like abaca and banana. Other improvements to the loom and the weaving process in the Eighteenth Century during the Industrial Revolution led to the construction of large mills in which thread was spun and then woven into cloth.

Sample Chapter – A Short History of Traditional Crafts – Gunsmiths

Sample Chapter
 A Short History of Traditional Crafts
Gunsmiths

The gunsmith performs a number of different tasks that involve many different skills, including woodworking, machinist, engineering and finishing. The first gunsmiths arose in Europe after the introduction of firearms in the Fourteenth Century. The Chinese, who had first invented gunpowder in the Ninth Century AD, were naturally the first ones to invent the firearm.
Gunpowder History
Invented by the Chinese in the Ninth Century, gunpowder at first was not explosive, but it was flammable. One of the first recorded uses as a weapon is a drawing of a flamethrower. The Chinese refined the mix, and soon they made rockets and fireworks. They used fireworks at first to scare away evil spirits. The technology spread to the Mongols, to India and then the Arabs. The technology reached Europe by the Thirteenth Century. Historians are not sure if the Mongol invaders brought the technology or if the knowledge came in through the Silk Road, but by the 1300’s the Europeans had gunpowder. 
Gunpowder 
Classed as a “low explosive” substance, gunpowder produces a large amount of pressure and gas after a rapid burn. This explosion of gas and pressure is ideal for propelling a projectile down the barrel of a firearm or cannon, as it is not intense enough to destroy the device. Gunpowder is composed of three ingredients, potassium nitrate, carbon and sulfur. Sulfur comprises the smallest component at about ten percent. The colonies imported it from Sicily, which has huge deposits. Carbon, the next biggest component at about fifteen percent, they could manufacture from charcoal, an abundant resource made by burning wood. Potassium nitrate is the most important at seventy-five percent and is the most difficult to obtain.
Potassium Nitrate
Potassium nitrate, or salt peter, accumulates in caves as the composted remains of bat manure, or guano. The early colonists knew of no natural sources of salt peter in the New World. Sources were found later on, but the need for this critical material during the Revolutionary War forced the colonists to find foreign sources. There is another way to produce salt peter, but it is a long process. Any organic matter that contains nitrogen is a potential source for potassium nitrate. Manure, blood from slaughterhouses, and plant material of all kinds they would gather and put in a huge pile. They would water this pile from time to time with animal and human urine. This huge pile of organic matter would decompose, leaving compost behind. They would then leach the salt peter out of this compost with water. They could then re-crystallize the salt peter by evaporating the resulting liquid in the sun. This process typically took a year to produce the salt peter needed for gunpowder.
Brief History of the Firearm
The Chinese developed the fire lance sometime in the 10th Century. This was simply a tube they filled with gunpowder. They lit the gunpowder which ignited and shot a fiery bolt of sparks at an adversary. Sometimes they would put shrapnel of some kind in the tube to inflict greater damage. By the 12th Century the Chinese had evolved their craft to create the first hand cannons which shot cannonballs. The firearm was probably carried to the Middle East by Mongol invaders in the 14th Century. One of the earliest forms of firearms was a gun called an arquebus. This was a defensive weapon whose name derives from the German word Hakenbüchse, or “hook gun.” The gun was mounted on hook like projection that steadied the weapon when the shooter fired the gun. Historians think that the arquebus first appeared in the Ottoman Empire sometime around 1465 and in Europe sometime around 1475. These early guns had to be fired by holding a lit match to a fire pan filled with gunpowder. This operation required a great deal of preparation at a time when the soldier was probably under attack. The development of the matchlock, possibly by the Japanese probably developed the matchlock and introduced it to the Portuguese sometime around 1543. The smooth bore muzzle loading musket appeared sometime around 1465, first as a heavier arquebus designed to penetrate armor. This led to the downfall of armor as protection and the musket evolved into a lighter firearm. The introduction of the matchlock made the musket more mobile.
Gunsmiths
The increasing complexity of firearms led to the appearance of gunsmiths that could make and repair the guns. The first gunsmiths were Italian craftsmen that assembled gun barrels. The early gunsmiths during the Middle Ages needed to join a guild in order to practice. Since there were no gunsmith guilds, these artisans joined blacksmithing guilds. As the various national governments soon began to employ gunsmiths their numbers and importance grew, leading to the appearance of specialized gunsmith guilds in the 14th Century. Britain lagged behind the other nations in gunsmiths leading King Henry VIII to invite gunsmiths in other European countries to work in London sometime before 1545. Because of the restrictive guilds in Continental Europe, many gunsmiths happily moved to England to practice their craft. Many gunsmiths migrated to America and began practicing their much needed craft among the first pioneers in the wilderness. The American gunsmiths developed the distinctive Kentucky, or Pennsylvania, long rifle which was much prized by pioneers like Daniel Boone for its accuracy. Gunsmiths provided a valuable service for the newly independent nation during the Revolutionary War.  Eli Whitney’s introduction of standardized gun parts in 1798 made mass produced firearms more affordable and placed less reliance upon the hand crafted guns of the gunsmith. However, many gun enthusiasts still prefer the high quality weapon produced by a skilled gunsmith.

A Short History of Traditional Crafts

A Short History of Traditional Crafts

Description:

Discover the story behind many of the traditional handicrafts like blacksmithing, weaving, quilting, sewing, basket making and pottery. The book covers the history of those crafts as well as metal smiths, brewers and woodworkers. 
Table of Contents

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Other Books in the Series
A History of the Transportation Revolution
History of the Telephone 
A History of Time
Short History of Libraries, Printing and Language
Short History of Fire Fighting
Short History of Roads and Highways
Short History of Railroads
Short History of Gardening and Agriculture
Short History of Public Parks
Table of Contents

Basket-Making

Candle Making

Ceramics

Embroidery

Glass Arts

Gunsmiths

Quilt Making

Spinning and Weaving History

Invention of Pottery 

Leather Manufacture

History

Soap Making History

Metal Working History

Coppersmith History

Goldsmith History

Silversmith History

Tinsmith History

Blacksmiths

Jewelry Making History

Wood Crafting History

Saddle Making History

History of Beads

Glass Blowing History

Leather Crafts

Stone Carving History

Floral Design History

Rug-Making History

Rope Making History

History of Beer and Brewing

History of Wine Making

Toy Making History

Doll Making History

Doll House Making History

Tapestry Art History

Knitting History

Sewing History

Crocheting History

Paper Making

Acknowledgements 

About the Author

Mossy Feet Books

Catalogue

Sample Chapter

Short History of Roads and Highways

Bicyclists Press for Better Roads
© 2020 Paul Wonning

Note Card – Covered Bridge Series 1 – Southeastern Indiana Covered Bridges

Note Card – Covered Bridge Series 1 – Southeastern Indiana Covered Bridges

Six beautiful covered bridges in Southeastern Indiana
Guilford Covered Bridge
Scipio Covered Bridge
James Covered Bridge
Stockheughter Covered Bridge

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Sample Chapter – Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites – South Central Edition

Sample Chapter

Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites

South Central Edition

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Title of Marker:
Private Barton W. Mitchell
Location:
SW corner of town square, SR 46/East Harrison Street & North Washington, Hartsville. (Bartholomew County, Indiana)
Installed by:
1992 by Indiana Historical Bureau
Marker ID #:
03.1992.1
Marker Text:
Mitchell, Co. F, 27th Indiana Volunteers, is buried in Hartsville Baptist Cemetery. He found Confederate General Lee’s “Lost” Special orders No. 191 Near Frederick, MD, September 13, 1862. Union General McClellan then engaged Lee at the Battle of Antietam.
Barton W. Mitchell (1816 – 1868)
Mitchell joined the Union Army on Sept. 12, 1861. He reported to the 27th Indiana Volunteers. His unit was at Frederick, Maryland. They were resting from a previous battle near a campground previously occupied by Confederate Major General Daniel Harvey Hill’s troops. It was around noon on September 13, 1862, when Mitchell noticed a packet lying in the grass in the campground Hill’s troops had occupied. Picking up the packet, he found three cigars. Wrapped around the cigars he found a piece of paper. Upon examining the contents of the letter, he realized he had made an important find. He turned the letter (no word on the fate of the cigars) to his sergeant. The letter made its way up the chain of command until it reached the Commander of the Union Troops, Major General George B. McClellan. The contents of the letter delighted General McClellan, who told a subordinate officer, “Here is a paper with which, if I cannot whip Bobby Lee, I will be willing to go home.”
Special Order 191
Mitchell had happened upon a letter that was of great importance to the Confederate Army. Many historians consider his find to have changed the course of the war. Confederate Army General Robert E. Lee drafted the letter on September 9, 1862. It contained detailed troop movements that Lee planned to make during the next few days. The intelligence contained in the letters contributed greatly to the Union victories at the Battle of South Mountain and Battle of Antietam.
Wounded at Antietam
Mitchell received a leg wound at the Battle of Antietam. Due to the lack of antibiotics at the time, many wounds became infected. This was the case with Mitchell and he mustered out on Sept. 1, 1864. He died in 1868, possibly because of the infected leg, which probably never healed properly.

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Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites – South Central Edition

Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites – South Central Edition
Road Trips in East Central Indiana

Take a fun tour through the rich history of Indiana using Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites – South Central Edition as your guidebook. This tourism guide will help visitors find all of the historical treasures in south central Indiana.The counties included in this historical travel book include:
Bartholomew County

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Brown County
Crawford County
Floyd County
Harrison County
Jackson County
Lawrence County
Monroe County
Orange County
Washington County
Preview Chapter

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Other Books in the Series
Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites – South East Edition
Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites – Southwest Edition
Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites – East Central Edition
Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites – Central Edition
Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites – West Central Edition
Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites – North East Edition
Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites – North Central Edition
Guide to Indiana’s Historic Sites – North West Edition
Available In Multiple Formats – Ebook And Softbound:Kindle Softbound
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© 2019 Paul Wonning